The runner is slipped onto the shaft and secured by the springs.

The ribs of the frame are joined together with steel wire which is looped around a metal ring at the bottom of the runner.

The other end of the ribs are attached with steel wire to another metal ring (known as the top notch') which is permanently fixed to the top of the shaft.

When the umbrella is open, both rib attachments are close together, pushing the ribs outwards to form a canopy.  When the umbrella is closed, the rib attachments are stretched down the length of the shaft to enable it to fold tightly.